[Journal of Anthropological Archaeology -61.]Sampling Issues in Evaluations of Diet and Diversity: Lessons from Diablo Canyon. [In Maritime Adaptation and Seaside Settlement along the Pacific Coast of North America during the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition, edited by Jim Cassidy, Robert Ackerman, and Irina Ponkratova, pp. [Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology -31.]Report on the Vertebrate Fauna from CA-STA-207, Central Diablo Range, Stanislaus County, California: Evidence for an Upland Adaptation with Long-Term Stability in the Central Diablo Range (SCA Proceedings - PDF].
Within three weeks, there will be nothing left but a few small bones." A fossil normally preserves only a portion of an organism, usually that portion that was partially mineralized during life, such as bones and teeth.
Trace fossils are the marks left by a living organism, such as feces, footprints or impressions of feathers or leaves.
Scientists are still finding a few new sites where they live today but they were quite abundant on earth some 2 billion years ago, and perhaps earlier.
Geologists credit stromatolite activity for creating the earth's first atmospheric oxygen and making animal life possible.
Observations on Settlement and Subsistence during the Late La Jolla Complex - Preceramic Interface as Evidenced at Site CA-SDI-11,796, Lower San Diego River Valley, San Diego County, California [SCA Proceedings - PDF].
Recovery, Synthesis, and Reporting: 1990s Anza-Borrego Desert State Park Cultural Resources Inventory Conducted by the Archaeological Research Unit, University of California, Riverside [California State Parks].
Material older than about 50,000 years can’t be dated with radiocarbon techniques because too little of the original radioactive material remains.
Modern labs can measure samples as small as 100 mg (0.003 oz) to a precision of ±16 years (Radiocarbon Web Info) Most fossil are dated by decay of isotopes such as Uranium 235, Potassium 40, and Rubidium 87 that have much longer half-lives than carbon 14.
Documentation of early human migrations through Island Southeast Asia and Wallacea en route to Australia has always been problematic due to a lack of well-dated human skeletal remains.
The best known modern humans are from Niah Cave in Borneo (40–42 ka), and from Tabon Cave on the island of Palawan, southwest Philippines (47 ± 11 ka).
The Holocene calendar, also known as the Holocene Era or Human Era (HE), is a year numbering system that adds exactly 10,000 years to the currently dominant Gregorian calendar (AD or CE) numbering scheme, placing its first year near the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch and the Neolithic Revolution, when humans transitioned from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to agriculture and fixed settlements.